Cancer Stages & Causes

Stage of cancer can be described by the extent of growth of cancer and based on size of cancer. It can be found be found by performing the tests. By these tests we can know even the extent of spread of cancer and how far it has spread to other adjacent organs. Staging of cancer should be clearly understood by the doctor so that the type of treatment to be given could be easily known. If the cancer is present at only one place then treatment like surgery or radiotherapy is sufficient to get rid of cancer completely. If there is spread of cancer to adjacent organs, then the treatment to be given in such a way that it circulates the whole body. There will not be correct identification of cancer sometimes then doctors check the lymph nodes present near to the cancer for the presence of cancer cells, it is the sign that indicates that the cancer has begun to develop I body.

There are 2 types of staging systems of cancer,

TNM system

 Number system

Changes that occur in DNA with in the cells leads to cancer. DNA present in the cell is packed into huge number of individual genes; each of the individual genes contains a set of instructions that are to be performed by the cell. If the changes occur in the instructions, then it alters the cell function and makes the cell cancerous.

Gene mutations can direct a healthy cell to

  • Allow rapid growth
  • Fail to stop uncontrolled cell growth
  • Make mistakes while repairing DNA errors

Changes in behavioral and environmental characters also cause changes in the body’s cells which converts the healthy cells to cancer cells. 90-95% cancers are due to environmental factors and some cancers are due to inherited genetics. Cancers are also caused due to changes in the life style, economic and behavioral characters and due to pollution. Environmental factors that contribute to increase mortality rate of cancer patients includes tobacco, diet and obesity, infections, radiation, stress, lack of physical activity and pollution. Agents that have been linked to cause of cancers are said to be carcinogens. About 90% of lung cancers are due to smoking. Tobacco smoke also causes cancer in larynx, head, neck, stomach, bladder, kidney, esophagus and pancreas. Lung cancer and mesothelioma also can be caused due to inhaling tobacco smoke, asbestos fibers and leukemia from exposure to benzene. Absence of physical activity also contributes to causing cancer not only due to body weight also due to effects of immune system & endocrine system. I take of high salt food leads to gastric cancer. 18% of cancer deaths are due to infectious diseases. Human papilloma virus causes cervical cancer and hepatitis B and C virus causes hepatocellular carcinoma. 10% of cancers are due to exposure to radiation like ionizing radiation and non-ionizing ultraviolet radiation.

  • Cancer staging
  • Cancer grading
  • Tests and procedures for detection of cancer staging
  • Chemicals & Physical agents
  • Exercise & Diet
  • Heredity & Genetic variations
  • Infection & Autoimmune diseases
  • Radiation

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